Roman numerals are a special kind of numeral system that originated in ancient Rome. These numbers have remained in Europe until the Late Middle Ages. Alphabet letters are used in this system to represent roman numerals. Before understanding the roman numbers, first, see what roman alphabets are? Because roman alphabets denote roman numbers.

There are only 23 alphabets in the roman system. J, U and W are not treated as roman letters from 26 English alphabets. There are as follows A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X, Y and Z.

Also Read: **Numbers in Words in English**

Few important roam numbers denoted by roman letters are I = 1, V = 5, X = 10, L = 50, C = 100, D = 500, M = 1000.

**Now find the list of roman numbers from 1-100**

1 | I | 34 | XXXIV | 67 | LXVII |

2 | II | 35 | XXXV | 68 | LXVIII |

3 | III | 36 | XXXVI | 69 | LXIX |

4 | IV | 37 | XXXVII | 70 | LXX |

5 | V | 38 | XXXVIII | 71 | LXXI |

6 | VI | 39 | XXXIX | 72 | LXXII |

7 | VII | 40 | XL | 73 | LXXIII |

8 | VIII | 41 | XLI | 74 | LXXIV |

9 | IX | 42 | XLII | 75 | LXXV |

10 | X | 43 | XLIII | 76 | LXXVI |

11 | XI | 44 | XLIV | 77 | LXXVII |

12 | XII | 45 | XLV | 78 | LXXVIII |

13 | XIII | 46 | XLVI | 79 | LXXIX |

14 | XIV | 47 | XLVII | 80 | LXXX |

15 | XV | 48 | XLVIII | 81 | LXXXI |

16 | XVI | 49 | XLIX | 82 | LXXXII |

17 | XVII | 50 | L | 83 | LXXXIII |

18 | XVIII | 51 | LI | 84 | LXXXIV |

19 | XIX | 52 | LII | 85 | LXXXV |

20 | XX | 53 | LIII | 86 | LXXXVI |

21 | XXI | 54 | LIV | 87 | LXXXVII |

22 | XXII | 55 | LV | 88 | LXXXVIII |

23 | XXIII | 56 | LVI | 89 | LXXXIX |

24 | XXIV | 57 | LVII | 90 | XC |

25 | XXV | 58 | LVIII | 91 | XCI |

26 | XXVI | 59 | LIX | 92 | XCII |

27 | XXVII | 60 | LX | 93 | XCIII |

28 | XXVIII | 61 | LXI | 94 | XCIV |

29 | XXIX | 62 | LXII | 95 | XCV |

30 | XXX | 63 | LXIII | 96 | XCVI |

31 | XXXI | 64 | LXIV | 97 | XCVII |

32 | XXXII | 65 | LXV | 98 | XCVIII |

33 | XXXIII | 66 | LXVI | 99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

**Now let’s see what the rules involved in writing the above roman numbers are.**

- When a number symbol appears after a greater number symbol, it will be added. For Example- VII = V + I + I = 5 + 1 +1 = 7.
- When a number symbol appears before a greater number symbol, it will be subtracted. For Example- IV = V – I = 5 – 1= 4.
- When a number symbol appears after a greater number symbol, it will be subtracted. For Example- XXV = X + X + V = 10 + 10 + 5 = 25.
- When a number symbol appears before a greater number symbol, it will be subtracted. For Example- XXXIX = X + X + X + X – I = 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 – 1 = 39.

To make it more simple, **break the number into Ones, Tens, Hundreds, and Thousands, and write it down.**

Also Read: **Girolamo Cardano- Man Behind Complex Numbers.**

**Convert 1985 to Roman Numerals**

Break 1984 into 1000, 900, 80, 5 and then do conversion

1000 = M

900 = CM

90 = XC

5 = V

1000 + 900 + 80 + 5 = 1985, so 1985 = MCMXCV

**Convert 2020 to Roman Numerals**

Break 2020 into 1000, 1000, 10, 10 and then do conversion

1000 = M

1000 = M

10 = X

10 = X

1000 + 1000 + 10 + 10 = 2020, so 2020 = MMXX

**Convert 1562 to Roman Numerals**

Break 1562 into 1000, 500, 60, 2 and then do conversion

1000 = M

500 = D

60 = LX

2 = II

1000 + 500 + 60 + 2 = 1562, so 1562 = MDLXII

**Convert 2658 to Roman Numerals**

Break 2658 into 1000, 1000, 600, 50, 8 and then do conversion

1000 = M

1000 = M

600 = DC

50 = L

8 = VIII

1000 + 1000 + 600 + 50 + 8 = 2658, so 2658 = MMDCLVIII

Also Read: **How many zeroes in a Million, Billion, Trillion, Nonillion, Quadrillion, Sextillion, Googol**

Now see the roman numbers from 100 -1000

100 | C | 600 | DC |

101 | CI | 601 | DCI |

109 | CIX | 609 | DCIX |

200 | CC | 700 | DCC |

201 | CCI | 701 | DCCI |

209 | CCIX | 709 | DCCIX |

300 | CCC | 800 | DCCC |

301 | CCCI | 801 | DCCCI |

309 | CCCIX | 809 | DCCCIX |

400 | CD | 899 | DCCCXCIX |

401 | CDI | 900 | DM |

409 | CDIX | 901 | DMI |

500 | D | 909 | DMIX |

501 | DI | 999 | DMXCIX |

509 | DIX | 1000 | M |

Rules to Convert Numbers to Roman Numerals

The three primary rules for reading and writing Roman numerals:

- Any letter can be repeated maximum for three times, for example, CCC= 300, XX= 20, and so on.
- If one or more letters are placed after another letter with greater value, then add that amount.

XII = 12 (10 + 2 = 12)

DCCC = 800 (500 + 100 + 100 + 100 = 800)

**Example of additive Rule**

265 | 100 + 100 + 50 + 10 + 5 | C + C + L + X + V | CCLXV |

133 | 100 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 3 | C + X + X + X + III | CXXXIII |

182 | 100 + 50 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 2 | C + L + X + X + X + II | CLXXXII |

- If a letter is placed before another letter of greater value, subtract that amount.

XC= 90 (100 – 10 = 90)

CM = 900 ( 1000 – 100 = 900 )

**Example of Subtractive Rule **

199 | 100 + (100 – 10) + (10 – 1) | C + X + C + I + X | CXCIX |

143 | 100 + (50 – 10) + 3 | C + L + X + III | CXLIII |

296 | 100 + 100 + (100 – 10) + 5 + 1 | C + C + X + C + V + I | CCXCVI |

**More Examples:**

123 CXXIII

189 CLXXXIX

256 CCLVI

294 CCXCIV

333 CCCXXXIII

369 CCCLXIX

452 CDLII

492 CDXCII

543 DXLIII

588 DLXXXVIII

654 DCLIV

691 DCXCI

710 DCCX

744 DCCXLIV

888 DCCCLXXXVIII

873 DCCCLXXIII

926 CMXXVI

985 CMLXXXV

1 | 5 | 10 | 50 | 100 | 1000 |

I | V | X | L | C | M |

5000 | 10000 | 50000 | 100000 | 500000 | 1000000 |

V¯ | X¯ | L¯ | C¯ | D¯ | M¯ |