List Of Top Programming languages

List Of Top Programming languages

The primary objective of Programming languages for computers is aiding a large number of persons to use computers without the need to know in detail the internal structure of a computer. Languages must match the type of applications that are to be programmed using the language.

The ideal language would be one that signifies precisely the specification of a problem to be solved and turns it into a series of instructions for a computer. The design of all modern programming languages (with one exception) is machine-independent. In other words, the structure of the programming language would not depend upon the internal structure of a specified computer; one should be able to execute a program written in the programming language on any computer despite who manufactured it or what model it is. Such languages are known as high-level machine-independent programming languages.

Programming Language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules (syntax) for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. Programming languages can be employed to create computer programs. The term programming language refers typically to high-level languages, such as BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Ada, and Pascal.

Programming Language

We eventually need to convert your program into machine language so that the computer can understand it.

There are two ways to do this:

  1. Compile the program
  2. Interpret the program

Programming Language

Compile is to transform a program written in a high-level programming language from source code into object code. It uses a tool called a compiler. A compiler reads the full source code and translates it into a complete machine code program to perform the required tasks which is output as a new file Programming Language.


The interpreter is a program that executes instructions written in a high-level language. An interpreter reads the source code one interpreter line at a time, converts this line into machine code, and runs it.


Computer Programming

Computer programming is the method of writing, testing, debugging/troubleshooting, and maintaining the source code of computer programs. The programmer must write source code in a programming language like C++, JAVA, Perl, etc.

Computer Programmer:

A programmer is someone who writes the computer program. Computer programmers write, test, and maintain programs or software that instruct the computer what to do.

Generations of Programming Language

The first generation languages, or 1GL, are low-level languages that are machine language.

The second-generation languages, or 2GL, are also low-level languages that generally consist of assembly languages.

The third-generation languages, or 3GL, are high-level languages such as C.

The fourth-generation languages, or 4GL, are languages that consist of statements similar to statements in a human language. Fourth-generation languages are most common in database programming and scripts.

The fifth-generation languages, or 5GL, are programming languages that contain visual tools to help develop a program. An excellent example of a fifth-generation language is Visual Basic.

Types of Programming Language

There are three types of programming language:

  1. Machine language (Low-level language)
  2. Assembly language (Low-level language)
  3. High-level language

Low-level languages are closer to the language used by a computer, while high-level languages are closer to human languages.

Machine Language

Machine language is a collection of binary digits orbits that the computer reads and interprets. Machine languages are the only languages understood by computers. While easily understood by computers, machine languages are almost impossible for humans to use because they consist entirely of numbers.

Machine Language: 169 1 160 0 153 0 128 153 0 129 153 130 153 0 131 200 208 241 96

High-level language: 5 FOR I=1 TO 1000: PRINT “A”: NEXT I

Assembly Language: A program written in assembly language consists of a series of instructions mnemonics that resemble a stream of executable instructions when translated by an assembler, that can be loaded into memory and executed. Assembly languages use keywords and symbols, much like English, to form a programming language but at the same time introduce a new problem. The problem is that the computer doesn’t understand the assembly code, so we need a way to convert it to machine code, which the computer does understand. Assembly language programs are translated into machine language by a program called an assembler.


Machine language: 10110000 01100001

Assembly language: mov a1, #061h   

High-Level Language

High-level languages allow us to write computer code using instructions resembling everyday spoken language (for example print, if, while) which are then translated into machine language to be executed. Programs written in a high-level language needs translation into machine language before their implementation. Some programming languages use a compiler to perform this translation, and others use an interpreter.

Examples of High-level Language:

  1. ADA
  2. C
  3. C++
  4. JAVA
  5. BASIC
  6. COBOL


It stands for Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. Developed in the 1950s for teaching University students to program and provided with every self-respecting personal computer in the 1980s, BASIC has been the first programming language for many programmers. It is also the foundation for Visual Basic.

Example: PRINT “Hello world!”

Visual Basic:

It is a programming language and environment developed by Microsoft. Based on the BASIC language, Visual Basic was one of the first products to provide a graphical programming environment and a paint metaphor for developing user interfaces.

Example: MsgBox “Hello, World!”


Dennis Ritchie developed it at Bell Labs in the mid-1970s. C is much closer to assembly language than are most other high-level languages. The first major program written in C was the UNIX operating system. The low-level nature of C, however, can make the language difficult to use for some types of applications.


#include <stdio.h>

int main(void) {

printf(“hello, world\n”);

return 0;



It is a high-level programming language developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs. C++ adds object-oriented features to its predecessor, C.

C++ is one of the most popular programming languages for graphical applications, such as those that run in Windows and Macintosh environments.


#include <iostream>int main() {

std::cout<< “Hello World!” <<std::endl;

return 0;



It is a high-level programming language developed by Niklaus Wirth in the late 1960s. The language derives its name after Blaise Pascal, a seventeenth-century French mathematician who constructed one of the first mechanical adding machines. It is a popular teaching language.


Program HelloWorld(output);


writeLn(‘Hello, World!’)



It is a high-level programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Java was initially called OAK and was designed for handheld devices and set-top boxes. Oak was unsuccessful so in 1995 Sun changed the name to Java and modified the language to take advantage of the burgeoning World Wide Web. Java is a general-purpose programming language with several features that make the language well suited for use on the World Wide Web.


/* * Outputs “Hello, World!” and then exits */

public class Hello World {

public static void main(String[] args) {

System.out.println(“Hello, World!”);



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