10 Facts About Acids and Bases
- Any water-based (aqueous) liquid are classified as an acid, a base, or as neutral. Oils and other non-aqueous liquids are not considered as acids or bases.
- Different definitions of acids and bases are given by scholars. Acids can accept an electron-pair or donate a proton or a hydrogen ion in a chemical reaction, while bases can donate an electron-pair or accept a proton or hydrogen.
- Acids and bases are classified as strong and weak. Strong base or strong acid completely dissociates into its ions when added to water. If the compound does not entirely separate, it’s a weak acid or base.
- The pH scale is the measure of the alkalinity or acidity(basicity) of a solution. The scale runs from 0 to 14, with neutral being 7, acids having a pH less than 7, and bases having a pH higher than 7.
- Bases and acids react with each other in a neutralization reaction. The reaction produces water and salt and leaves the solution closer to a neutral pH than before.
- One standard test of whether an unknown is an acid or a base is to wet a litmus paper with an acid or base. A paper which is treated with an extract from a particular lichen that changes colour according to pH is a litmus paper. Bases turn litmus paper blue, while acids turn litmus paper red. A neutral chemical won’t change the paper’s colour.
- As they separate into ions in water, acids and bases, both conduct electricity.
- If you can’t tell whether a solution is either acidic or a basic just by looking at it, touch and taste may be used to identify them apart. However, since both bases and acids can be corrosive, you should not test chemicals by tasting or touching them. You can sustain a chemical burn from both bases and acids. Bases taste bitter and feel slippery or soapy, while acids tend to taste sour and feel drying or astringent, while. Examples of household bases and acids you can test are baking soda solution (diluted sodium bicarbonate — a base) and vinegar (weak acetic acid).
- Acids and bases are essential to the human body. For example, the stomach secretes an acid called hydrochloric acid(HCl) to digest food. To neutralise the acid before it reaches the small intestine, the pancreas secretes a fluid rich in the base bicarbonate.
- Acids and bases react with metals. Acids release hydrogen gas when reacted with metals. Sometimes hydrogen gas is released when a base reacts with a metal, such as reacting sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and zinc. Another typical reaction between a base and a metal is a double displacement reaction, which may produce a precipitate metal hydroxide.
|reactivity||accept electron-pairs or donate protons or hydrogen ions.||donate electron-pairs or accept electrons or hydroxide ions|
|taste (don’t test unknowns this way)||sour||soapy or bitter|
|corrosivity||maybe corrosive||maybe corrosive|
|touch (don’t test unknowns)||astringent||slippery|
|conductivity in solution||conduct electricity||conduct electricity|
|common examples||vinegar, lemon juice, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid||bleach, soap, ammonia, sodium hydroxide, detergent|