The ecosystem is shaped by the two essential factors biotic and abiotic components. Biotic components include all living organisms such as microorganisms, plants, and animals. Whereas the Abiotic components include non-living elements such as temperature, water, soil, climate, etc., and these are very important for life survival. Out of all the living elements, Flora and Fauna are the most interesting ones.
Importance of flora and Fauna and its meaning in detail.
In short for easy understanding
Flora: relates to all plant life.
Fauna: relates to all animal life.
Now we go deeper into their origins and etymologies of these concepts.
What is Flora ?
Flora is obtained from the word floral, which is related to flowers, and in Latin terminology, Flora means “The Goddess of Flower.” It represents all the indigenous plant life present at a particular time or region. Flora represents the entire plant kingdom. Flora has many types, and it differentiated by many factors like time, place, etc.
One of the best types is the area they grow in. Some grow in water or hill areas or desert regions, and some are endemic to a particular geographic location.
Flora also has adaptations depends on the place they grow.
- Agricultural flora where humans cultivate plants for their uses.
- Garden flora this is obtained through Horticulture practice of growing decorative flowers in gardens, few plants adapted to live underwater, they are treated as a unique form of flora.
- ‘Native Flora’, they can grow in all weather conditions but are native to the sandy dunes of deserts. Cacti are examples of native flora. They preserve water and protect themselves from predators.
What is Fauna ?
Like Flora for plants, Fauna represents animal life in a region. The origin of the Fauna has many explanations as per Roman mythology; Fauna means “the goddess of fertility.” or Faunus implies the name of Roman God. It was also known to be forest spirits. Fauna also has many types depends on different animal forms. Fauna is more complicated compared to flora because of a variety of animal life forms. Like the plant kingdom for flora, the entire animal kingdom is represented by Funa.
The classification of Fauna is based on Birds, Fishes, Microorganisms, etc.
- Birds referred to as Avifauna
- Fishes referred to Pisci Fauna
- Microorganisms referred to Microfauna (that includes Bacteria and Virus these are also considered under animal kingdom)
- Unknown and Undiscovered animals referred to as cryptofauna. (Animals that exist in historical time but extinct now )
The planet Earth is a beautiful place for all forms of life. Across the planet earth, we see different forms of animals, flowers and plants that catch our attention. Now we understand that Flora and Fauna are the two fundamental aspects of this ecosystem, and they are utmost necessary for future survival.
The governments across the world also take measures for conservation of flora and Fauna. Few we seen are national parks, reserves, zoos, and sanctuaries, etc.
The following are the reasons for Flora and Fauna Importance :
Ecological Balance Maintenance
As stated earlier Flora and Fauna are very important for human survival and existence. We all know that plants intake carbon dioxide and release oxygen for our survival, that means flora releases oxygen that is consumed by the Fauna for its survival. Similarly, Fauna releases carbon dioxide for plants survival which helps in photosynthesis.
The humankind is blessed with both Flora and Fauna through its food and medical offerings.
Not only humans Animals themselves also depend on flora and Fauna to maintain the equilibrium by predating on different animals and plants to sustain their population on planet earth. Dead animals are used as a is a source of fertilizer for plants. And also the decay of the dead animals act as supplement minerals for other animals.
The Aesthetic Value of Earth depends upon the flora and Fauna that spread across the Earth. We all visit several national parks, biosphere reserves, zoos, botanical gardens, forests, etc., to refresh and enjoy the beauty of those places.
Expansion of Local Economies
Flora and Fauna also help in contributing to local economies by way of tourism. For example, Amazon forests in Brazil attract tourists that contribute about 50 million dollars to the Brazilian economy.
Indonesia, the Caribbean, Panama are many other tourist locations that attract millions of people every year due to their widespread flora and Fauna.
Examples of flora are Giant redwood trees ( trees grow in our city parks or neighbourhoods), Welwitschia Mirabilis ( the unique plant species that doesn’t like rain), etc.
Examples of Fauna are Coral reef (the eye-catching coloured landscapes beneath the ocean surface) Eltham copper butterfly (an endangered species of butterfly that was initially discovered near Eltham in 1938).
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