India has a multi-party structure with acceptance granted to national, state, and district level parties. The Election Commission of India (ECI) reviews the rank/position periodically.
Other political parties that are run to contest the local, state, or national elections need to register themselves by the Election Commission of India specifically.
Political Parties can be either a national level or state level parties based on objective criteria.
- A recognized party adores privileges like-a reserved party symbol,
- free transmission time on state-run television or radio,
- a negotiation in updating election dates and giving advice in setting electoral rules and regulations.
Moreover, national and state parties need to fulfill these conditions for all Lok Sabha or State elections; otherwise, they lose their status.
All recognized registered parties contesting elections are required to choose a symbol from the available list of symbols assigned by the EC.
Each of the 28 states of India along with the union territories of Jammu and Kashmir, National Capital Territory of Delhi, and Puducherry consist of elected governments until President’s rule is imposed under certain specific situations.
National political party
A reported party has to fulfill any one of the two conditions before it declares itself as a national party:
- A party must win two percent of the seats in the Lok sabha from a minimum of three different states.
- The party gains 6 percent of votes in any four or more states at a general election to Lok Sabha or Legislative Assembly, and additionally, it must win four Lok Sabha seats.
List of the national political parties:
|Name||Abbreviation||Foundation year||Founder/s of the party|
|1||All India Trinamool Congress||AITC||1998||Mamata Banerjee|
|2||Bahujan Samaj Party||BSP||1984||Kanshi Ram|
|3||Bharatiya Janata Party||BJP||1980||Syama Prasad Mukherjee (Bharatiya Jana Sangh)|
|4||Communist Party of India||CPI||1925||Abani Mukherji|
|5||Communist Party of India (Marxist)||CPI(M)||1964||P. Sundarayya|
|6||Indian National Congress||INC||1885||Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji|
|7||Nationalist Congress Party||NCP||1999||Sharad Pawar|
|8||National People’s Party||NPP||2013||P. A. Sangma|
State political party
A party has to cope up with any of the stated conditions in order to get recognized as a state party:
- A party must acquire at least 6 percent of valid votes polled in an election and wins a minimum of 2 seats in a state assembly and one seat in Lok Sabha.
- A party shall win at least three percent of the total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly.
- A party must win a minimum one seat in the Lok Sabha out of 25 seats or any fraction of it given and reserved to that State.
- According to the liberalized criteria, it should be eligible to get recognized as a state party provided it secures 8 percent or more out of the total valid votes polled in the State.
List of recognized state political parties:
|Name||Abbreviation||Year of Foundation||The current leader of the Recognised State party|
|1||Aam Aadmi Party||AAP||2012||Arvind Kejriwal|
|2||All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||AIADMK||1972||Edappadi K. Palaniswami|
|3||All India Forward Bloc||AIFB||1939||Debabrata Biswas|
|4||All India Majlis e Ittehadul Muslimeen||AIMIM||1927||Asaduddin Owaisi|
|5||All India N.R. Congress||AINRC||2011||N. Rangaswamy|
|6||All India United Democratic Front||AIUDF||2004||Badruddin Ajmal|
|7||All Jharkhand Students Union||AJSU||1986||Sudesh Mahto|
|8||Asom Gana Parishad||AGP||1985||Atul Bora|
|9||Biju Janata Dal||BJD||1997||Naveen Patnaik|
|10||Bodoland People’s Front||BPF||1985||Hagrama Mohilary|
|11||Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam||DMDK||2005||Vijayakanth|
|12||Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||DMK||1949||M. K. Stalin|
|13||Goa Forward Party||GFP||2016||Vijai Sardesai|
|14||Hill State People’s Democratic Party||HSPDP||1968||Hopingstone Lyngdoh|
|15||Indian National Lok Dal||INLD||1999||Om Prakash Chautala|
|16||Indian Union Muslim League||IUML||1948||Sayed Hyderali Shihab Thangal|
|17||Indigenous People’s Front of Tripura||IPFT||2009||Mevar Kumar|
|18||Jammu and Kashmir National Conference||JKNC||1932||Omar Abdullah|
|19||Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party||JKNPP||1982||Bhim Singh|
|20||Jammu and Kashmir Peoples Democratic Party||JKPDP||1998||Mehbooba Mufti|
|21||Janta Congress Chhattisgarh||JCC||2016||Ajit Jogi|
|22||Janata Dal (United)||JD(U)||1999||Nitish Kumar|
|23||Jannayak Janta Party||JJP||2018||Dushyant Chautala|
|24||Jharkhand Mukti Morcha||JMM||1972||Shibu Soren|
|25||Kerala Congress (M)||KC(M)||1979||C. F. Thomas|
|26||Lok Janshakti Party||LJP||2000||Ram Vilas Paswan|
|27||Maharashtra Navnirman Sena||MNS||2006||Raj Thackeray|
|28||Mizoram People’s Conference||MPC||1972||Lalhmingthanga|
|29||Naga People’s Front||NPF||2002||T. R. Zeliang|
|30||People’s Democratic Alliance||PDA||2012||Bd. Behring Anal|
|31||Rashtriya Janata Dal||RJD||1997||Lalu Prasad Yadav|
|32||Rashtriya Lok Dal||RLD||1998||Chaudhary Ajit Singh|
|33||Rashtriya Lok Samta Party||RLSP||2013||Upendra Kushwaha|
|34||Samajwadi Party||SP||1992||Akhilesh Yadav|
|35||Shiv Sena||SS||1966||Uddhav Thackeray|
|36||Sikkim Democratic Front||SDF||1993||Pawan Kumar Chamling|
|37||Telugu Desam Party||TDP||1982||N. Chandrababu Naidu|
|38||United Democratic Party||UDP||1972||Metbah Lyngdoh|
|39||YSR Congress Party||YSRCP||2011||Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy|
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